On-the-Job Training (OJT)



On-the-Job Training (OJT) refers to a method of teaching the skills, knowledge, and competencies required for employees to perform a specific job within the workplace or work environment. This form of training takes place while an individual is actively performing and carrying out their job functions.


The primary feature of OJT is that it is hands-on and is usually imparted by an experienced worker or a supervisor at the workplace. The employee receiving the training typically learns new skills or refines existing ones through direct practice and observation. This differs from off-the-job training methods, which might occur at a university, a dedicated training center, or through online courses.


  1. Relevance: The training is directly applicable to an employee’s daily tasks, making it immediately relevant.
  2. Cost-Effective: OJT often requires fewer resources compared to off-site training programs.
  3. Flexibility: Training can be tailored to specific roles within the company and adjusted as required.
  4. Immediate Feedback: Employees can instantly apply what they’ve learned and get immediate feedback on their performance.
  5. Cultural Assimilation: New employees can familiarize themselves with company culture, work processes, and colleagues during their training period.


Several methods can be used to impart on-the-job training:

  1. Coaching: An experienced worker or supervisor provides one-on-one instruction to the trainee, offering guidance as needed.
  2. Mentoring: Beyond task-specific instruction, mentoring involves the development of the professional and personal growth of the trainee.
  3. Job Rotation: Employees switch roles or tasks to gain a broader understanding of a range of roles within the company.
  4. Job Shadowing: Trainees observe experienced workers to learn specific skills and understand the flow of tasks.
  5. Apprenticeship: A structured system wherein trainees learn a trade or profession under the guidance of skilled workers over a specified period.


While OJT offers several benefits, it also comes with challenges:

  1. Inconsistency: The quality and structure of OJT might differ depending on the trainer’s skills and expertise.
  2. Time-Consuming for Trainers: Experienced workers might find their productivity reduced when they need to train newcomers.
  3. Lack of Theoretical Knowledge: Purely practical training might neglect the underlying theoretical concepts behind certain tasks.

Q&A Section

  1. What is the primary feature of On-the-Job Training (OJT)?
    The primary feature of OJT is its hands-on approach, with training provided by an experienced worker or supervisor at the workplace while the employee is actively performing their job functions.
  2. How does OJT differ from off-the-job training?
    OJT takes place at the work site while the employee is actively engaged in their job, while off-the-job training might occur at dedicated training centers, universities, or online platforms.
  3. Why might an organization choose OJT over other forms of training?
    OJT is often more cost-effective, relevant to the employee’s tasks, flexible, and provides immediate feedback.
  4. What are some potential pitfalls of OJT?
    Challenges include inconsistency in training quality, the potential for reduced productivity of trainers, and a lack of in-depth theoretical knowledge.
  5. Can OJT be used for all roles in an organization?
    While OJT is versatile, its effectiveness may vary depending on the role. Some roles may require more specialized off-site or theoretical training.

Examples of OJT

  1. Retail Store: A new cashier is trained by an experienced cashier to operate the register, manage transactions, and handle customer queries.
  2. Software Company: A junior developer is paired with a senior developer to understand the company’s coding practices and workflow.
  3. Manufacturing Plant: A trainee operates machinery under the close supervision of a seasoned technician, learning safety procedures and operational techniques.
  4. Hospitality: A new hotel front desk agent shadows an experienced agent to learn the reservation system, customer service best practices, and daily operations.
  5. Aerospace: An apprentice mechanic works alongside a certified aircraft mechanic to learn the intricacies of aircraft maintenance and repair.


On-the-Job Training (OJT) serves as an essential training tool for numerous organizations, enabling employees to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary for their specific roles. Though packed with advantages, it’s crucial for companies to recognize potential challenges and strive to provide a balanced training experience.

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Article Written by Jacob Peebles, with research and assistance from chatgpt